PHONETIC GRAMMAR OF PLOSIVES SOUNDS SPOKEN BY SUNDANESE AND JAVANESE

Yusup Irawan, NFN Riani

Abstract


This study aims to identify “the phonetic grammar" of voiced plosive sounds [b, d, and g] and voiceless [p, t, and k] at the initial position of the words uttered by two different groups of native speakers: Sundanese and Java. These sounds are phonemically the same phonemes in Sundanese, Javanese and Indonesian. The findings show that the two groups of native speakers realize different and the same VOT (Voice Onset Time) pattern of popping sounds. For sounds voiced plosives or lenis plosive [b, d, and g], Sundanese speakers realize it with a negative VOT pattern, while Javanese speakers do it with a positive VOT pattern. Then, voiced plosive sounds uttered by Javanese speakers tend to be "aspirated" or breathy. For the voiceless plosives or fortis plosives [p, t, and k], the two groups of speakers pronounce them in the same pattern, namely the positive VOT pattern, and even tend to have zero VOT. The VOT patterns reflect aspirated voiced and voiceless phonation categories for Javanese and voiced and voiceless for Sundanese.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi gramatika fonetik “phonetic grammar” bunyi-bunyi letupan bersuara [b, d, dan g] dan tak bersuara [p,t, dan k]  pada posisi awal kata yang diucapkan oleh dua kelompok penutur jati yang  berbeda: Sunda dan Jawa. Bunyi-bunyi itu secara fonemik merupakan fonem yang sama dalam bahasa Sunda, Jawa, dan Indonesia. Temuan dalam penelitian ini adalah kedua kelompok  penutur jati merealisasikan pola VOT (voice onset time) bunyi letupan yang berbeda dan sama. Untuk bunyi-bunyi bersuara plosive lenis  [b, d, dan g] penutur bahasa Sunda merealisasikannya dengan pola VOT negatif, sedangkan penutur bahasa Jawa merealisasikannya dengan pola VOT positif. Kemudian bunyi-bunyi letupan bersuara yang diucapkan oleh penutur bahasa Jawa cenderung “beraspirasi” atau breathy. Pada bunyi-bunyi takbersuara atau plosive fortis  [p, t, dan k], kedua kelompok penutur mengucapkannya dengan pola yang sama, yakni pola VOT positif bahkan cenderung ber-VOT nol atau zero. Pola-pola VOT itu merefleksikan kategori fonasi bersuara breathy dan takbesuara untuk bahasa Jawa dan bersuara dan tak bersuara untuk bahasa Sunda.


Keywords


vot (voice onset time), bunyi letup, Sunda, Jawa; pop sound; Sundanese; Javanese

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26499/wdprw.v49i1.802

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