NFN Suhandano


The focus or voice system is an important issue in the study of Austronesian languages. This paper discusses the benefactive and instrumental focus in the imperative sentences of Javanese, a member of the Austronesian language with the largest number of native speakers. Through this paper, it will be shown that benefactive and instrumental in Javanese imperative sentences can be present as elements of sentences that are focused or unfocused. When they are not focused, the two elements of the sentence are expressed in prepositional phrases (PP) with the preposition of kanggo for benefactive and the preposition of nganggo for instrumental. When they are focused, the benefactive and instrumental are expressed in noun phrases (NP) and the verbs take the suffix –(k)na. Their position in the sentence structure also differs when they are focused and when they are not. The existence of imperatives with a benefactive and instrumental focus indicates that Javanese is a language of multiple voice types and this is different from the focus in declarative sentences which place Javanese into a language type with a two-voice system, active and passive. It seems that the differences focus in the two types of sentences indicates that Javanese is in the process of changing from a multiple voice type language to a two voice type language.

Sistem voice atau fokus merupakan isu penting dalam studi bahasa-bahasa Austronesia. Tulisan ini membicarakan fokus benefaktif dan instrumental dalam kalimat imperatif bahasa Jawa, anggota bahasa Austronesia yang jumlah penutur aslinya paling banyak. Melalui tulisan ini akan ditunjukkan bahwa benefaktif dan instrumental dalam kalimat imperatif bahasa Jawa dapat hadir sebagai unsur kalimat yang difokuskan maupun tidak difokuskan. Ketika tidak difokuskan, kedua unsur kalimat tersebut dinyatakan dalam frasa preposisional (FP) dengan preposisi kanggo untuk benefaktif dan preposisi nganggo untuk instrumental. Ketika difokuskan, benefaktif dan instrumental diekspresikan dalam frasa nomina dan verba kalimat mengambil sufiks –(k)na. Posisinya dalam struktur kalimat juga berbeda ketika difokuskan dan tidak difokuskan. Keberadaan imperatif dengan fokus benefaktif dan instrumental mengindikasikan bahwa bahasa Jawa termasuk tipe bahasa multiple voice dan hal ini berbeda dengan fokus dalam kalimat deklaratif yang menempatkan bahasa Jawa termasuk ke dalam tipe bahasa dengan sistem dua voice, aktif dan pasif. Tampaknya perbedaan fokus dalam kedua jenis kalimat mengindikasikan bahwa bahasa Jawa sedang dalam proses perubahan dari bahasa tipe multiple voice ke bahasa tipe dua voice.


focus/voice system; imperative; benefactive; instrumental; language typology; fokus/sistem voice; imperatif; benefaktif; instrumental

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