ANALISIS KETIDAKLANCARAN TUTURAN (SPEECH DISFLUENCIES) PADA PIDATO BERBASIS NASKAH DAN PIDATO EKSTEMPORAN PEMELAJAR BIPA

Fida Pangesti, Arti Prihatini, NFN Fauzan

Abstract


This study aims to describe the comparison of the following items: (1) the form and (2) the location of speech disfluencies in script-based speech and extemporaneous speech by BIPA students. This research is a qualitative descriptive study. The research data is in the form of speech impediments in the speeches of BIPA students who were captured using the listening method and then analyzed using the disappearing technique. The results of data analysis showed that the fluency of extemporaneous speech was significantly higher than that of script-based speech. The forms of speech impediment include (1) pause filler, (2) repetition, (3) lengthening, and (4) revision. In this case, there is no difference in the characteristics of speech impediments in the two speeches. The speech impediment occurs: (1) before the sentence, (2) the clause limit, (3) the constituent limit, and (4) within the constituent. In this case, extemporaneous speech is dominated by the location of speech impediments (1) and (2), while script-based speech is dominated by (3) and (4) which indicates that the obstacle in script-based speech lies in word recall, while the obstacle in extemporary speech lies in message formulation.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan perbandingan (1) bentuk dan (2) letak ketidaklancaran tuturan (speech disfluencies) pada pidato berbasis naskah dan pidato ekstemporan pemelajar BIPA. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif kualitatif. Data penelitian berupa ketidaklancaran tuturan dalam pidato mahasiswa BIPA yang dijaring dengan metode simak kemudian dianalisis dengan teknik lesap. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan ketidaklancaran tuturan pidato ekstemporan secara signifikan lebih tinggi daripada pidato berbasis naskah. Bentuk ketidaklancaran tuturan meliputi (1) pengisi jeda, (2) pengulangan, (3) pemanjangan, dan (4) revisi. Dalam hal ini, tidak ada perbedaan karakteristik bentuk ketidaklancaran tuturan dalam kedua pidato. Ketidaklancaran tuturan terjadi (1) sebelum kalimat, (2) batas klausa, (3) batas konstituen, dan (4) di dalam konstituen. Dalam hal ini, pidato ekstemporan didominasi letak ketidaklancaraan tuturan (1) dan (2), sedangkan pidato berbasis naskah didominasi (3) dan (4) yang mengindikasikan bahwa hambatan pada pidato berbasis naskah terletak pada recall kata, sementara hambatan  pada pidato ekstemporan terletak pada formulasi pesan.


Keywords


BIPA; speech; speech disfluencies; psikolinguistics; ketidaklancaran tuturan; pidato; psikolinguistik

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26499/wdprw.v50i1.739

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