ALTERASI FITUR FONOLOGIS BAHASA BALI PASIEN AFASIA BROCA

I Ketut Wardana

Abstract


The determination of phonological alteration patterns of speech disorder of Broca aphasia is the scope of neurolincguistic study that needs more attention. Thus, this study investigates the alteration of the phonological feature in Broca's aphasics. This phenomenology-based research involves the observation of two patients with nonhemorrhagic stroke with impaired language modality such as spontaneous speech, naming, reading, writing, but intact comprehension. Data was collected from observation method with listening, involvement, conversation, and noting. The data were recorded wiy Sonny voice recorder. The instruments for language modality measurements were 65 picture list, 65 word list, 1 sheet of  conversation script, and 1 reading text. The data analysis provided the implementation of generative phonology. The results showed that the substitution of marked features by less marked features due to the errors of the articulation planning program. The more complex the articulation of the phonemes, the more often the segments are altered. This study also found the violation of the sonority scale and reconstruction of the syllabic structure. The alteration of segments with the identic place of articulation with features with a different manner of articulation occurs due to phonological neighboring density. So, this study has contributed to clinical recommendations for phonological disorder for neurologists and speech therapists.


Penetapan pola alterasi fonologis pada gangguan bunyi afasia Broca merupakan ruang lingkup kajian neurolinguistik yang belum begitu banyak menjadi perhatian. Penelitian ini mengkaji jenis dan pola alterasi fitur fonologis tuturan bahasa Bali pasien afasia Broca. Penelitian deskriptif berbasis fenomenologi ini melibatkan dua pasien stroke nonhemoragik (SNH) dengan pelemahan modalitas bahasa, seperti terbata-bata, penamaan, membaca, menulis, namun keupayaan pemahaman masih baik. Data dikumpulkan melalui metode pengamatan dengan teknik simak, libat, cakap, dan catat. Semua data direkam dengan Sonny voice recorder. Instrumen untuk mengukur modalitas bahasa menggunakan 65 daftar gambar, 65 daftar, kata, 1 skrip percakapan, dan 1 teks bacaan. Semua alterasi bunyi ujaran dianalisis melalui fonologi generatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya alterasi fitur-fitur bermarkah di semua distribusi oleh fitur yang kurang bermarkah karena konsep artikulasi yang keliru. Semakin tinggi kompleksitas artikulasi bunyi, target semakin sering bunyi tersebut mengalami alterasi. Fitur bunyi dengan kompleksitas yang tinggi [+hambat] cenderung diganti dengan fitur bunyi yang kompleksitas artikulasinya setingkat lebih rendah [+frikatif]. Fonem dengan fitur fonologis bermarkah mengalami proses penyederhanaan melalui alterasi bunyi dalam bentuk substitusi, pelesapan, penyisipan, penambahan, dan mutasi. Alterasi terjadi berdasarkan kesamaan fitur tempat artikulasi, namun berbeda pada cara artikulasinya. Hasil penelitian ini dapat menjadi petunjuk ilmiah baik bagi disiplin ilmu klinisi bahasa maupun terapis gangguan berbahasa.


Keywords


aphasia; alteration; phonological feature; neurolinguistics; afasia; alterasi; fitur fonologis; neurolinguistik

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26499/wdprw.v49i2.536

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